Gold tooling on the back is more difficult on account of its convexity.
For this work the volume is placed in a little wooden press which finds a place upon the bench, or in a special contrivance which can be screwed to the bench.
To ensure good results in tooling the back, it is necessary that the work to be done should be accurately marked out beforehand. The bands are measured out by means of the dividers if they do not already show as raised bands. With a pointed folder draw this traced design accurately upon a strip of cardboard. Blind lines are made upon cloth before the latter has become quite dry; in other cases tool the first impression hot and vigorously, pick out the impression with white of egg, and then tool with lukewarm fillets. In making lines, the fillets may be drawn to and fro, whereby a great brilliancy will be produced. Gold lines or ornamental fillets are picked out with white of egg and then tooled in gold. For simple lines the gold is taken up from the cushion; for ornamental fillets the gold is carried to the back.
Lettering the back is an art in itself as regards the arrangement of the lines, but besides this it requires considerable practical experience. The letters are composed and screwed up in the type-holder for printing. The type holder, with the letters, must never be placed over the heating stove, for in Germany letters made of lead are still most generally used, and these would melt very quickly if placed over the stove. Moreover, the letters should be screwed up just tight enough to prevent their falling out. The heat expands them and they are then locked quite firmly enough in the type-holder.
In arranging the letters the following general rules should be observed ;
1.-Always use types from the same fount in a title.
2.-For books printed in Gothic (black letter) type use Gothic letters; for books printed in Latin types use the same for lettering.
3.-Alllines in a title should be set either in lower case only or in caps only.
4.-Gothic and Latin in a title are inconceivable.
5.-Except for abbreviations, points are no longer used in the titles of books, not even at the end; neither is a comma placed after the author's name.
6.-Nowadays, a short line is always made under the author's name.